Chemical refrigerants used in refrigeration and air conditioning are primarily hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), a type of F-gas (fluorinated greenhouse gas). HFCs and other F-gases are powerful greenhouse gases that have a much greater warming effect than carbon dioxide, but are not as prevalent and stay in the atmosphere for a shorter amount of time. 


Addressing emissions from HFCs is important, and actions like the international Kigali agreement have sought to address them. Reducing the effects of HFCs on global warming includes management of leaks, proper disposal, and development of alternative refrigerants. You can simulate innovation in the use of refrigerants in En-ROADS with the Methane & Other slider. Click on the three dots next to this slider to find the advanced settings, select Yes in “Use detailed settings,” and then adjust the “Energy and industry emissions (CH₄, N₂O, & F-gases)” slider.