Glossary of terms and acronyms in En-ROADS model and materials:
Starting a forest or stand of trees in an area where there was no forest before.
Caused by human activity
Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage
Charcoal produced from plant matter and stored in the soil as a means of removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
|Carbon intensity||The amount of carbon dioxide emitted per amount of energy. E.g. grams of CO2 emitted per megajoule of energy produced. Coal has the highest carbon intensity of the fossil fuels, followed by oil, then natural gas.|
Carbon capture and storage
Carbon dioxide removal
Methane. A greenhouse gas.
Refers to any long-term changes in Earth's weather patterns (rain, temperature, sunshine, storms, etc.) Scientist have been studying changes in the earth’s climate over millions of years and the data shows that the weather patterns have been changing dramatically recently.
Climate change adaptation
Changes made by people or plants and animals in the way things are usually done in order to respond or react to change in climate.(For example, some species of birds are not migrating for winter anymore, since where they live is warmer now and they can find enough food in the winter.)
The amount that the global surface temperature will increase in response to a doubling of CO2 in the atmosphere.
Carbon dioxide. A greenhouse gas that can be naturally made by living things and used by plants for photosynthesis or produced by burning fuel (gas, wood, coal, oil, etc.).
Climate-Rapid Overview and Decision Support simulator created by Climate Interactive
Direct air capture
The clearing of trees, transforming a forest into cleared land
U.S. Energy Information Administration
Making and giving off something (for example: giving off carbon dioxide gas)
Energy Rapid Overview and Decision-Support climate change solutions simulator created by Climate Interactive
A measure of energy equal to 10^18 joules
Fluorinated gases. Synthetic (created by humans) gases that are used in industrial applications and are powerful greenhouse gases. Include HFCs, PFCs, and SF6.
Gross Domestic Product. The total value (money) of goods produced and services provided in a country during one year.
A measure of energy equal to 10^9 joules.
GISS Surface Temperature Analysis created by NASA. An estimate of global surface temperature change.
Any gas that absorbs radiation (heat energy) from the Earth’s surface and thus traps heat and makes the planet warmer. Anthropogenic (caused by human activity) greenhouse gases include CO2, CH4, N2O, and F-gases.
A measure of mass. Metric gigatons (10^9 tons or 10^12 kg).
Global warming potential. The heat absorbed by a greenhouse gas in the atmosphere over a period of time as compared to the heat absorbed by an equivalent amount of CO2.
A global dataset of historic surface temperature anomalies. Maintained by the Met Office Hadley Centre for Climate Change.
Hydrofluorocarbons. A type of F-gas used in refrigeration and air conditioning.
Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning
Integrated Assessment Model
International Energy Agency
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
A measure of energy. Lifting an apple one meter takes about 1 joule of energy (source).
Show the drivers of growth in carbon dioxide emissions. Yoichi Kaya created the equation behind the graphs: Global Population x GDP per Capita x Energy Intensity of GDP x Carbon Intensity of Energy = CO2 Emissions from Energy
Kilowatt hour. A measure of energy. Equals one hour of electricity use at 1 kW power.
Megawatt hour. Equals 1000 kWh.
Nitrous oxide. A greenhouse gas.
Nitrogen trifluoride. An F-gas.
|PM2.5||Particulate matter (tiny particles that can be inhaled) in the air of 2.5 micrometers or less in diameter. This is a category of air pollution that is associated with significant health impacts and is responsible for millions of deaths worldwide each year.|
Parts per million. A common measure of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere.
Perfluorinated chemicals. A family of F-gases.
The relative amount of cost reduction per doubling of cumulative production of a technology. In the case of renewable energy, the progress ratio is thought to be 20%, i.e. for every doubling of production, costs decrease by 20%. Costs come down as supply chains, business models, and production industries grow. Also known as the learning effect or learning/experience curve.
Representative concentration pathway. A greenhouse gas concentration (not emissions) pathway used by the IPCC. Shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs) are a successor to the RCPs.
Radiative forcing. The difference between energy absorbed by the Earth and energy radiated back into space. Incoming energy minus outgoing energy. When incoming energy is greater than outgoing energy, RF is positive and the planet will warm. Measured in W/m2.
Sulfur hexafluoride, an F-gas
Shared Socioeconomic Pathways. A set of five narratives about future social, political and economic conditions in the world that are used to create and compare climate scenarios.
A measure of energy equal to 10^12 joules.
World Energy Outlook. A yearly publication by the International Energy Agency (IEA).