Glossary of terms and acronyms in En-ROADS model and materials:


Afforestation

Starting a forest or stand of trees in an area where there was no forest before.


AIM/CGE      

An Integrated Assessment Model maintained by the National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan.


Anthropogenic

Caused by human activity



AR5         

IPCC Fifth Assessment Report on Climate Change 2014



BECCS        

Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage



Biochar    

Charcoal produced from plant matter and stored in the soil as a means of removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.



Carbon intensity
The amount of carbon dioxide emitted per amount of energy. E.g. grams of CO2 emitted per megajoule of energy produced. Coal has the highest carbon intensity of the fossil fuels, followed by oil, then natural gas.


CCS         

Carbon capture and storage



CDR

Carbon dioxide removal



CH4

Methane. A greenhouse gas.



Climate change


Refers to any long-term changes in Earth's weather patterns (rain, temperature, sunshine, storms, etc.) Scientist have been studying changes in the earth’s climate over millions of years and the data shows that the weather patterns have been changing dramatically recently.


Climate change adaptation

Changes made by people or plants and animals in the way things are usually done in order to respond or react to change in climate.(For example, some species of birds are not migrating for winter anymore, since where they live is warmer now and they can find enough food in the winter.)



Climate sensitivity

The amount that the global surface temperature will increase in response to a doubling of CO2 in the atmosphere.



CO2

Carbon dioxide. A greenhouse gas that can be naturally made by living things and used by plants for photosynthesis or produced by burning fuel (gas, wood, coal, oil, etc.).



C-ROADS

Climate-Rapid Overview and Decision Support simulator created by Climate Interactive



DAC

Direct air capture



Deforestation

The clearing of trees, transforming a forest into cleared land



EIA

U.S. Energy Information Administration  



EMF

Stanford Energy Modeling Forum



Emissions

Making and giving off something (for example: giving off carbon dioxide gas)



En-ROADS

Energy Rapid Overview and Decision-Support climate change solutions simulator created by Climate Interactive



Exajoule

A measure of energy equal to 10^18 joules



F-gases

Fluorinated gases. Synthetic (created by humans) gases that are used in industrial applications and are powerful greenhouse gases. Include HFCs, PFCs, and SF6.



GCAM

An Integrated Assessment Model (IAM) maintained by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL).



GDP 

Gross Domestic Product. The total value (money) of goods produced and services provided in a country during one year.



Gigajoule

A measure of energy equal to 10^9 joules.



GISTEMP

GISS Surface Temperature Analysis created by NASA. An estimate of global surface temperature change.



Greenhouse gas

Any gas that absorbs radiation (heat energy) from the Earth’s surface and thus traps heat and makes the planet warmer. Anthropogenic (caused by human activity) greenhouse gases include CO2, CH4, N2O, and F-gases.



Gtons

A measure of mass. Metric gigatons (10^9 tons or 10^12 kg).



GWP

Global warming potential. The heat absorbed by a greenhouse gas in the atmosphere over a period of time as compared to the heat absorbed by an equivalent amount of CO2.



HADCRUT3

global dataset of historic surface temperature anomalies. Maintained by the Met Office Hadley Centre for Climate Change.



HFCs

Hydrofluorocarbons. A type of F-gas used in refrigeration and air conditioning.



HVAC

Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning



IAM

Integrated Assessment Model



IEA

International Energy Agency



IMAGE

An Integrated Assessment Model (IAM) maintained by the PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency.



IPCC

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change



Joule

A measure of energy. Lifting an apple one meter takes about 1 joule of energy (source).



Kaya Graphs

Show the drivers of growth in carbon dioxide emissions. Yoichi Kaya created the equation behind the graphs: Global Population x GDP per Capita x Energy Intensity of GDP x Carbon Intensity of Energy = CO2 Emissions from Energy



kWh

Kilowatt hour. A measure of energy. Equals one hour of electricity use at 1 kW power.



MESSAGE-

GLOBIOM

An Integrated Assessment Model (IAM) maintained by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).



MWh

Megawatt hour. Equals 1000 kWh.



N2O

Nitrous oxide. A greenhouse gas.



NF3

Nitrogen trifluoride. An F-gas.



PM2.5
Particulate matter (tiny particles that can be inhaled) in the air of 2.5 micrometers or less in diameter. This is a category of air pollution that is associated with significant health impacts and is responsible for millions of deaths worldwide each year.


ppm

Parts per million. A common measure of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere.



PFCs

Perfluorinated chemicals. A family of F-gases.



Progress ratio

The relative amount of cost reduction per doubling of cumulative production of a technology. In the case of renewable energy, the progress ratio is thought to be 20%, i.e. for every doubling of production, costs decrease by 20%. Costs come down as supply chains, business models, and production industries grow. Also known as the learning effect or learning/experience curve.



RCP

Representative concentration pathway. A greenhouse gas concentration (not emissions) pathway used by the IPCC. Shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs) are a successor to the RCPs.



REMIND-

MAGPIE

An Integrated Assessment Model (IAM) maintained by the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact and Research (PIK).



RF

Radiative forcing. The difference between energy absorbed by the Earth and energy radiated back into space. Incoming energy minus outgoing energy. When incoming energy is greater than outgoing energy, RF is positive and the planet will warm. Measured in W/m2.



SF6

Sulfur hexafluoride, an F-gas



SSPs

Shared Socioeconomic Pathways. A set of five narratives about future social, political and economic conditions in the world that are used to create and compare climate scenarios.



Terajoule

A measure of energy equal to 10^12 joules.



WEO

World Energy Outlook. A yearly publication by the International Energy Agency (IEA).



WITCH-

GLOBIOM

An Integrated Assessment Model maintained by the European Institute on Economics and the Environment (EIEE).