Some critiques and areas of improvement include:

  • Global aggregation limits treatment of heterogeneity between regions and countries.

  • The level of detail limits tactical planning of energy system. It is not a “bottom-up” model.

  • The global economy in the model is not fully endogenous – it does not model welfare:

    • Growth of GDP per capita is specified by the user; assumes regional convergence of GDP per capita at 1%/year over time
    • Sources and uses of funds for subsidies and taxes are not accounted for (e.g., revenue recycling from a carbon price)
    • Some technology policies are costless
    • Implicit, transient non-conservation of money and unserved demand possible
  • Equity, non-climate environment, health and other effects are excluded.

  • Some inputs (e.g., energy supplies) specify taxes or subsidies to drive change in the system while others (e.g., energy efficiency, methane emissions, deforestation) directly drive change, avoiding the taxes or subsidies that might drive the change.

  • While En-ROADS includes multiple feedback processes (e.g., carbon fertilization and carbon saturation), it does not yet include the effects of various biogeochemical feedback processes such as the positive feedback due to the albedo effect or the release of methane from permafrost.